Differences 

Species 
    • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper
    • Dark-shouldered Skimmer,  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper
    • Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 
  • The females of these species are visually close, making identification in the field, in hand or on images difficult 
  • We will show these differences with the aid of close-up images 

100 2846 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 1Little Skimmer
Orthetrum abbotti 

100 2109 Orthetrum hintzi Dark shouldered Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 2

100 3111 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Old Close up Hertzogberg MP RSA Nov 2017r 3Highland Skimmer Orthetrum machadoi 

 

Visual Differences
  • Abdomen Lateral
    • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper

      Abdomen short and stubby. Length approximately equal to hindwing length
      Well defined black stripe on segments 5 - 10
      S 1-4 yellow
      When young S 4 only with thin line along the lowed side  With age S 1-4 may develop a dark line above the yellow, but is discontinuous fro the line on S 5-10
    • Claspers Black
    • Foliages yellow with black rim

100 2853 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 22Little Skimmer
Mature
Orthetrum abbotti 
Abdomen Lateral View

100 644 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 12Little Skimmer
Young Female
Orthetrum abbotti
AbdomenLateral View

 

 

 

    • Dark-shouldered Skimmer,  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper
      Foliages yellow with black rim

100 2114 Orthetrum hintzi Dark shouldered Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 16

 

 

 

    • Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 

100 2306 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 14

 

 

 

  • Abdomen Dorsal
    • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper
      Short and stubby Abdomen length approximately equal to hindwing length
      Well defined black  stripe on segments 5 - 10
      S 4 only with thsin line along the lowed side 

100 2085 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 17

 

 

 

    • Dark-shouldered Skimmer,  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper

100 2115 Orthetrum hintzi Dark shouldered Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 21

 

 

 

    • Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 

100 2307 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 15 

 

 

 

 
  • Thorax Lateral
    • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper
      Short and stubby Abdomen length approximately equal to hindwing length
      Well defined black  stripe on segments 5 - 10
      S 4 only with thsin line along the lowed side 

100 2847 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 6

 

 

 

    • Dark-shouldered Skimmer,  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper

 100 2110 Orthetrum hintzi Dark shouldered Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 5

 

 

 

    • Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 

 100 2302 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 5

 

 

 

 
  • Thorax Dorsal
    • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper
      Short

100 640 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 7

 

 

 

    • Dark-shouldered Skimmer,  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper

 

 

 

 

    • Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 

 

 

 

 

 
 
  • Thorax Dorsal
    • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper
      Short and stubby Abdomen length approximately equal to hindwing length
      Well defined black  stripe on segments 5 - 10
      S 4 only with thsin line along the lowed side 

100 2853 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 22Little Skimmer
Mature

Orthetrum abbotti 
Thorax Lateral View

100 644 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo Dec 2016r 12Little Skimmer
Young Female
Orthetrum abbotti
Thorax Lateral View

 

 

 

    • Dark-shouldered Skimmer,  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper

 

 

 

 

    • Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 

 

 

 

 

 
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Detail Description 
  • Littler Skimmer, Orthetrum abotti. Kleinskepper
    • Face all greenish cream, unmarked except for two blackish markings on upper surface of frons next to eyes. 100 2850 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 15 100 2851  Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 16  Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019
    • Head dark brown above with low peaks. Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019  100 2851 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 16
    • Thorax greenish cream, virtually unmarked except for darkening of sutures. Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019 Dorsal surface covered with minute blackish spines giving a fine spotted appearance. 100 2849  Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 13
    • Wings slightly smoky with darker smoky patches reaching halfway along wing. Costa yellow.Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019
    • Abdomen short (less than wing length), 100 2856 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 30 uniformly swollen with no taper. 100 2854 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 25  Light yellowish green and brown with dark brown lateral markings starting on segment 4, becoming wider and joining on s 8. S 9 all dark brown. S 10 yellowish behind with two fine black dots.100 2855 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 28 100 2854 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 25 Fine blackish line runs along top of abdomen from s 3 to 8 with paired dark markings at ends of each of s 3 to 7.100 2854 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 25  A black line starting mid dorsal s 7 broadening to the hind margin of s 9. has the form of a slender arrowhead with broadest at hind margin of s 9 Small yellow marks on dorsal s 10 Appendages very small.100 2855 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 28
  • Highland Skimmer  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper
    • Face and eyes light brown. Thorax sides all greenish yellow brown, wide dark brown shoulder stripe present.
    • Bases of all four wings with small dark brown to orange splashes.
    • Abdomen Segments 1 to 3 mostly yellowish. S 4 to 8 yellowish and dark brown at sides. S 9 and 10 dark brown with yellowish spots. When looked from above the black marks from the side 'wraps" over to the dorsal side.
    • Foliations small, yellow with black edges
    Highland Skimmer, Orthetrum machadoi, Hooglandskepper 
    • Young Males 100 2123 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Young Hertzogberg MP RSA Nov 2017r 3 and female 100 2128 r Female Ezimvelo Nov 2016r 2 similar in colours and markings 
    • All light yellowish to greenish brown.  Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018 100 2128 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Ezimvelo Nov 2016r 2 
    • Face light brown Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018 Frons spectacled shaped without the outline of the spectacle as in the male
    • Eyes grown on to becoming light brown belowOrthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018 100 2302  Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 5
    • Thorax fairly deep pruinescent blue when old Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Ezemvero NR GP RSA Oct 2019  Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Ezemvero NR GP RSA Oct 2019  When young yellow with faint brown 100 2302 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 5striped that darkens to brown Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Young Male Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019 before it pruinose to blue/grey Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Ezemvelo NR GP RSA Oct 2019. Sometimes with lighter mottled pruinescence making up a side stripe, in most individuals the blue becomes more or less even across the thorax Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Ezemvero NR GP RSA Oct 2019. A lighter area forms a diffuse stripe along top between wings The dorsal thorax uniformly brown with darker small spots with a narrow darker brown shoulder stripe visible when young100 2304 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 8, this brown mark may pruinose to a darker blue than the surrounding area The dorsal thorax pruinose to a dark blue becoming dark grey with ageOrthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Ezemvero NR GP RSA Oct 2019 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Male Ezemvero NR GP RSA Oct 2019.   
    • Wings slightly smoky with a hint of amber at the basal edge.Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018
    • Abdomen yellowish brown when young becoming grey/blue . Fine dark stripe running along length of top 100 2307 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 15 .Dark brown side stripe.100 2306 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 14. Small yellow dark rimmed foliations present on segment 8. 100 2307 Orthetrum machadoi Highland Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2018r 15

 

 

    • Face all greenish cream, unmarked except for two blackish markings on upper surface of frons next to eyes. 100 2850 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 15 100 2851  Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 16  Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019
    • Head dark brown above with low peaks. Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019  100 2851 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 16
    • Thorax greenish cream, virtually unmarked except for darkening of sutures. Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019 Dorsal surface covered with minute blackish spines giving a fine spotted appearance. 100 2849  Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 13
    • Wings slightly smoky with darker smoky patches reaching halfway along wing. Costa yellow.Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019
    • Abdomen short (less than wing length), 100 2856 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 30 uniformly swollen with no taper. 100 2854 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 25  Light yellowish green and brown with dark brown lateral markings starting on segment 4, becoming wider and joining on s 8. S 9 all dark brown. S 10 yellowish behind with two fine black dots.100 2855 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 28 100 2854 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 25 Fine blackish line runs along top of abdomen from s 3 to 8 with paired dark markings at ends of each of s 3 to 7.100 2854 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 25  A black line starting mid dorsal s 7 broadening to the hind margin of s 9. has the form of a slender arrowhead with broadest at hind margin of s 9 Small yellow marks on dorsal s 10 Appendages very small.100 2855 Orthetrum abbotti Little Skimmer Female Close up Ezemvelo GP RSA Nov 2019r 28

Highland Skimmer  Orthetrum hintzi, Donkerskofskepper 

 

 

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